My first evening in Zambia was spent at a locally owned and operated hotel in the capital city of Lusaka. My son and I had deliberately avoided the western-style chains … we’d both seen enough of these in our travels to satisfy any irrational requirement we may have felt for comfort and convenience. We much preferred to pass the night at a place that reflected the character of the city and its people.

After 34 hours of numbing travel in cramped plane compartments and stale airports, I was far too tired and wired to even think about sleep. The hotel did feature a dim sanctuary that passed as a bar, so I ordered a local beer and sat. Within seconds I became vaguely aware that I was an object of curiosity … and within minutes I was engaged in a wide-ranging conversation with the barkeeper and two (the only two) other patrons. They were all kind, outgoing and friendly, validating my unscientific theory that African people are generally more gracious and welcoming than those from more “modern” countries and continents. I asked them if many tourists stopped here before launching for Zambia’s game reserves … South Luangwa, Kafue and the Lower Zambezi. With great pleasure, they advised me that I was the first white person they’d ever seen at this hotel. We spent the better part of an hour drinking, analyzing American and Zambian politics, and comparing the diversity of Zambian wildlife to East Africa’s. But the beer turned out to be the catalyst I needed to feel the debilitating effects of the long overdue travel exhaustion. As I staggered off to bed I made a mental note that if I had opted to stay at one of Lusaka’s chain hotels I’d never have been as warmly greeted or made to feel so welcome.

Awake early the following morning, my son and I patronized the hotel’s tiny restaurant. The place had four small round tables with whitish tablecloths, only slightly stained. The juice was cool and freshly squeezed, the food was simple but very good, and the staff was attentive and courteous. As we departed I left three American dollars beside my plate. After packing my gear for the field, I walked to the lobby to confirm the time. The young lady who had waited our table at breakfast saw me in passing and hurried over to talk. She asked if I realized that I’d left money on the table in the restaurant. I told her that I was indeed aware of it. She seemed relieved. One of her co-workers had insisted that the cash was left inadvertently … and another thought it was possible that the bills constituted a gratuity. So they’d had a meeting to discuss it. After working through the possibilities, they’d reached the consensus that they’d been left a tip, but wanted to be sure of it prior to my departure. She was pleased that I was able to confirm their decision and thanked me effusively. Then she left me, saying “I’ll share it with my colleagues.”

Although this memory has stayed with me over the past few months, there is no real point to the anecdote. But it does validate the thing I love most about the African people. Human interaction and connectivity seem to be much more meaningful to them … I think it’s because they’ve yet to be inundated and overwhelmed with the media distractions that so depressingly curse the westernized existence. They take the time to sit, talk and get to know a person … and visitors from faraway lands are still mysterious and interesting to them. My fourteen hours in Lusaka also illustrated the potential of the smallest act of kindness and the value of individual integrity. The hotel wait staff, which I suspect is minimally compensated, was more than willing to return my gratuity without hesitation … all the way up to the minute when I confirmed with finality that the money was theirs to keep. Three dollars may not be much in Williamsburg, Virginia … but it can reveal much about human character in Lusaka, Zambia.

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Maasai giraffes in a driving rain.  The giraffe on the far left has at least five birds on its forelegs.

Maasai giraffes in a driving rain. The giraffe on the far left has at least five birds on its forelegs.

A friend of mine recently asked  …”how do you photograph giraffes?” My initial but unspoken reaction was … (1) hold camera to eyeball (2) peer through viewfinder (3) lock focus, and (4) depress shutter button. But after a few minutes of consideration it struck me that it really was a damn fine question. That’s because, without actually thinking about it, I’ve evolved a specific strategy for photographing not only giraffes, but most all of East Africa’s animals.

The giraffe is both a beautiful and beautifully implausible animal. Outlandishly designed, they are photogenic even if they’re standing at a roadside doing nothing. But under certain circumstances they offer opportunities for world class images. I’ve outlined a few of those circumstances in the subparagraphs below …

a) Kenya is home to a couple of varieties of oxpecker … the red-billed and the yellow-billed. These birds ride the large mammals to pick off insects or stray vegetation… and as a general rule the big critters appreciate having them around. Oxpeckers love giraffes, and if the photographer catches one in just the right location the results can be spectacular. A photograph like the one below requires luck, to be sure … but it’s also made possible by maintaining awareness of the birds, where they are, where they’re likely to perch, etc. Patience is also important … sometimes the birds won’t immediately move into position, the giraffe looks away, etc. But good things come to those who wait (sometimes) and watch.

Giraffe with yellow-billed oxpecker in the launching position.

Giraffe with yellow-billed oxpecker in the launching position.

b) Male giraffes compete for mating rights in the traditional way … by fighting. But they don’t have fists, large antlers or disproportionate incisors … they only have necks. And they use them to swing their heads at each other in hopes of achieving violent contact anywhere north of their opponent’s forelegs. The squabbles may seem ridiculous to the casual viewer — like slow motion play fighting — but in reality the process is executed in deadly earnest. The animals are quite capable of inflicting serious injury on each other. But what’s dangerous to the animals in this case is fortuitous for the photographer. Their lunges and contortions make them exceptional subjects for the camera. The “necking” pair below was captured at Samburu.

Reticulated giraffes "necking" at Samburu ... winner gets to mate.

Reticulated giraffes "necking" at Samburu ... winner gets to mate.

c) A solo giraffe portrait can make a memorable photo, but I’ve found that if you catch two together in a close up the results can be much more dramatic. The key to success on this is locking focus on the nearest giraffe and waiting patiently for a second or even third one to move into the frame. There are also times when the giraffe(s) to the rear of the subject don’t necessarily need to be physically close. The second shot below illustrates this point. The two “necking” animals in the near distance make this photo much more successful than it would otherwise be.

Maasai giraffes ... central Mara.

Maasai giraffes ... central Mara.

Young reticulated giraffe with necking males in the background.

Young reticulated giraffe with necking males in the background.

d) Giraffes tend to be shy. They’re a little less shy, I think, while they’re eating. Their facial expressions become almost comedic as they chew … and if you can catch a full on frontal shot while they have a mouthful of leaves you can capture an amusing image. If you’re a professional this is a particularly good thing, because there are many animal lovers who collect unusual or whimsical giraffe shots.

Mastication in progress ... Samburu.

Mastication in progress ... Samburu.

e) There are times when you fill the frame with the animal and there are times when you want to capture some of the surrounding environment to place the subject in context. That’s why it’s important to look up from the viewfinder occasionally and maybe even shift to a wider angle lens. The shot below captures some of the acacias and scrub vegetation at Ndutu, Tanzania … I think it’s much more effective than a straight up, full-framed portrait of one of these animals would be.

Bookends at Ndutu.

Bookends at Ndutu.

d) Baby giraffes are precious and cute … and they make lovely photo subjects. This pretty much applies to the little ones of all species. Evidence below:

Baby reticulated giraffe peering around mother at Samburu.

Baby reticulated giraffe peering around mother at Samburu.

I’ll be writing about techniques for photographing several other species in the coming weeks but I certainly welcome questions from anyone at any time. Both my cell number and email address are listed on my website at www.savannaimages.com. Up next … Zebras.

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John Wayne as Rooster Cogburn

John Wayne as Rooster Cogburn

“The wicked flee when none pursueth.” Proverbs 28:1

Unlike most Americans of my gender, I never learned to love John Wayne as an actor. His movements always seemed clumsy and exaggerated to me, and his delivery was consistently over the top. That un-subtle style was probably appropriate for the majority of the roles in which he was cast, but it only worked for me once … and that was in the 1969 film True Grit. Wayne won his only Academy Award for his performance as the one-eyed U. S. Marshal Rooster Cogburn in that movie … and even though it was probably his best work ever, I’ve always suspected that the Oscar was to some extent a “sympathy” award. Wayne was a beloved figure to moviegoers, and True Grit surely represented the Academy’s last best opportunity to honor the aging icon.

The original True Grit is loosely based on a novel by Charles Portis. The story line is straightforward, perfectly suited for a movie adaptation. It goes something like this:

a) Bad guy kills good guy

b) Good guy’s daughter hires U. S. Marshal to lead her in pursuit of bad guy

c) U. S. Marshal and good guy’s daughter form an uneasy alliance with Texas Ranger

d) The trio locates bad guy and the situation is resolved through excessive and gratuitous violence

The 1969 iteration of True Grit was a success not so much because of the story, but because of the strength of the characters the author generated to bring it to life. Some credit, of course, must also be assigned to the actors who played the critical roles.

John Wayne was John Wayne through most of the picture, but there were flashes of brilliance and humanity in his performance that would be impossible to find elsewhere in his work. A young, fresh-faced Kim Darby was superb as Mattie Ross. She was the embodiment of the relentless but principled businesswoman, with just enough feminine vulnerability to give the males in the picture legitimate grounds for defending her. Glen Campbell played Labeouf, the Texas Ranger who joined them to pursue the outlaw. Campbell was the heartthrob du jour back in ’69, so I think it’s safe to assume he was cast solely for box office purposes. He was horrifying, to be sure, but at times he delivered just enough country boy charm to be almost passable in the role.

There were several scenes in the movie that bordered on the magnificent. One of the most effective was young Mattie’s horse trading with the auctioneer, Colonel Stonehill, who was in possession of horses purchased by her father prior to his murder. Only fourteen years old, she brutally intimidated and threatened Stonehill until he gave her every penny she wanted, and then returned later in the day to browbeat him into another absurdly one-sided trade. As she left the Colonel’s company, she casually asked him if he was acquainted with Marshal Cogburn. He answered affirmatively, noting that Cogburn was a “notorious thumper” and a man who richly deserved his terrible reputation. He then remarked pointedly to Mattie, “I would not be surprised to learn that he is a relative of yours.”

In what may have been Wayne’s finest scene, he and Mattie sat on a darkened hilltop waiting in ambush for a band of outlaws. They took the time to work past business disagreements and the hardships of the trail to get to know each other. Cogburn related the memory of his brief sentence as a husband and father and his days as the proprietor of “an eatin’ place” in Cairo, Illinois. He seemed to have no regrets that his wife and son had eventually abandoned him but he was genuinely wistful at the memory of the billiard table in his old restaurant. The scene is played with uncharacteristic delicacy.  I once read that Wayne believed it to be the best work he’d ever done … I think his instincts may have been accurate in this assessment.

The cinematically gorgeous True Grit of 1969 was filmed in the autumn in what appears to be Colorado. The scenery was spectacular and the colors were glorious, and after many tribulations and several dozen rounds fired, it ends on a poignant and touching note … a decidedly positive ending. The Coen brothers’ 2010 remake is a horse of a different color. The underlying story is essentially the same and some of the dialogue is identical … but the movies are more dissimilar than they are alike.

Jeff Bridges and Hailee Steinfeld as Cogburn and Mattie Ross

Jeff Bridges and Hailee Steinfeld as Cogburn and Mattie Ross

The story line in the Coen brothers’ 2010 remake is truer to Charles Portis’ novel than the original version … and the tone and mood of it is much more somber. Fort Smith, Arkansas, the point of departure for the pursuers, is not the colorful and lively burg it was in the first picture. It is a drab and desolate place that relies on the occasional hanging as a source of entertainment for citizens of all ages. The trail scenes are set in a stark, bare-treed, late winter landscape that seems appropriate to the darker mood rendered by the Coens. There are no golden aspen leaves fluttering in the late afternoon sunshine. In fact, a gentle snow falls during many of the Coen brothers’ most critical transitional scenes.

The music in the 1969 picture was almost overwhelming … not always in a good way. Chase scenes were overdubbed with a frantic, high volume orchestra score that tended to bludgeon the viewer … it annoys today even more than it did in 1969, when this technique was the norm rather than the exception. The music in the remake was elegant and understated. It took a few seconds to recognize the phrases … but as the measures progressed my memory returned me to my very early days as a southern Baptist and the song finally registered – it was the lovely old hymn “Leaning on the Everlasting Arms.”

The new version of True Grit offers the viewer a much more accurate depiction of dress and appearance in 1878 Arkansas. The characters in the television and movie westerns of the 1960s sported a few too many leather vests, string ties, narrow-brimmed cowboy hats, and clean shaven faces … it was a sartorial approach that never matched any photographs I’ve seen from that era in our history. The courtroom scene in the Coen Brothers film features characters that could have been extracted from a Matthew Brady compendium. They are impeccably dressed in period clothing and exquisitely bewhiskered with muttonchops and long mustaches.

The performances in the Coen Brothers’ version certainly equal or surpass those in the original. John Wayne, despite his shortcomings as an actor, was a powerful screen presence. Physically imposing, with a rugged voice to match his impressive appearance, he seemed to dominate virtually every scene. The new Rooster Cogburn, Jeff Bridges, has none of those qualities. But his consummate skill as an actor more than compensates. His performance is nuanced … he is a much more plausible drunk and he manifests the appropriate level of “true grit” when the situation demands it. Matt Damon, who is not an actor of the first rank in my opinion, is entirely credible as the Texas Ranger. His character is far more complex than the one portrayed in the original … he is dedicated to the Rangers and his pursuit of the outlaw, but he is loquacious in the extreme and often plagued by deep self-doubt. His character has noticeably more depth and mystery than Glen Campbell’s. The new Mattie Ross is brilliantly played by Hailee Steinfeld. Although young for the part, she is hard-edged and every bit as plausible as Kim Darby was in the original role. True to the novel, she is pragmatic in life and implacable in business. In one of her first speaking scenes, she stares down at her father’s remains in a casket with the undertaker looking on … she does not cry or wring her hands, but asks simply and directly “why is it so much?” After silently listening to the undertaker’s summary of the expenses, she is offered the opportunity to kiss her dead father’s cheek. She peremptorily declines, stating that “the spirit has flown.” Her performance as Mattie is certainly one of the highlights of this film.

I’ve always been attracted to simple stories about the pursuit of justice and right regardless of inconvenience, physical hardship or personal expense. Many of my favorite pictures – “The Winslow Boy” and “A Man For All Seasons” to name just two – revolve around this theme. True Grit is certainly the best western film representation of this idea. The original will always hold a special place in my heart … but it’s now superseded by the extraordinary Coen Brothers rendition. I’ve seen it in the theater twice now and may try it one last time on the big screen that will best do it justice.

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