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It was my good fortune to spend Memorial Day weekend 2013 in Los Angeles with family and close friends.  They are beautiful and brilliant people, kindred spirits in their collective passion for music, art and writing.  As always, our discussions turned to movies, a subject on which my knowledge is nowadays painfully and transparently deficient.  During the course of our conversations I learned that a recent favorite of theirs was a documentary titled “Searching for Sugar Man.”  The story from the film as they described it was implausible.  It was the history of an obscure American singer and songwriter who produced two albums in the early 1970’s and then completely vanished from public view.  Through a series of coincidences bordering on the miraculous, the singer, one Sixto Rodriguez of Detroit, completely unknown in America, became wildly popular in South Africa.  Rodriguez remained ignorant of his South African fame through the decades and never reaped a penny for the sale of his music in that country.  The royalties were indeed funneled to his parent recording label, but none of the cash ever found its way to the luckless artist.

The South Africans were enthralled with this performer for a number of reasons.  His tunes were powerful … haunting work wrenched from the heart of a deeply caring man with a profound sense of social justice.  His lyrics sang the story of his times, elegantly reflecting the unrest that was such a critical component of the American landscape in those days.  As much as his songs captured the spirit of the United States during that tumultuous decade, they resonated even more in South Africa.  Apartheid remained a reality there, but the cracks were beginning to show, and the South African government actively shielded the public from ideas that might potentially subvert the stability of the status quo.  Rodriquez’ music was accordingly forbidden, which made it all the more popular with the nation’s underground social activists.  Musically, Rodriguez’ work was imaginative and vibrant, to the extent that his failure to reach national fame in America remains an enduring mystery.  Legend had it that this remarkable artist disappeared precipitously from the public eye because he’d committed suicide shortly after the release of his last album.  Rumors about the specifics ranged from a bullet to the head to self-immolation onstage in mid-performance.

Finally, a dedicated music aficionado from Cape Town – the owner of the Mabu Vinyl record shop – launched a search mission for the mythical singer.  The investigator was one Stephen Segerman  … nicknamed “Sugar” not only for his synchronous name … but also by his connection with Rodriguez’ popular tune “Sugar Man,” which described the daily business of an urban drug dealer.  Sugar’s detective work not only located the legendary Rodriguez, it found him alive and in good health, still living in Detroit and working as a day laborer in the construction business.  After communications were established, Rodriguez was invited to South Africa, where he performed for thousands of fans who showered him with the respect and adulation he’d been denied over the course of the last few decades.

As coincidence would have it, I would leave the very next weekend for my first real visit to South Africa.  On the flight from Amsterdam to Cape Town I stayed awake long enough to watch “Searching for Sugar Man” on the TV screen in the seatback in front of me.  I was moved by the sequence of events – inauspiciously inaugurated by the record shop owner – that ultimately delivered this sublimely humble man to prominence in the later years of his life.  My South African friends confirmed that the tales of Rodriguez’ fame were in no way apocryphal … he was indeed on a par with Elvis Presley and the Rolling Stones in their country.

Since our itinerary had us in Cape Town for three full days prior to departing for the bush, my compadre Grant and I felt compelled to make a pilgrimage to the record store that instigated the resurrection of Sixto Rodriguez.  We located the modest shop early on a cool morning.  We held no expectation of seeing the now renowned owner, “Sugar” Segerman,  but Sugar’s face was the first we saw upon entry, and a more gracious and interesting man you’ll never find.  He was kind enough to take a few minutes to educate us on the nuances of Rodriguez’ work and then he posed for a few photographs with us.   We thanked him for caring enough to be the mechanism by which a measure of respect was at last delivered to Sixto Rodriguez, and for being kind enough to welcome us so warmly to his shop.

It was impossible to walk out the door to the winter sidewalk breeze and not be cognizant that we were exiting the place where justice long deferred was at last rendered into reality.  Miracles apparently do happen from time to time … and there can be no more deserving beneficiary than Sixto Rodriguez.

Stephen Segerman ... locater of the elusive Sixto Rodriguez

Stephen Segerman … locater of the elusive Sixto Rodriguez


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John Wayne as Rooster Cogburn

John Wayne as Rooster Cogburn

“The wicked flee when none pursueth.” Proverbs 28:1

Unlike most Americans of my gender, I never learned to love John Wayne as an actor. His movements always seemed clumsy and exaggerated to me, and his delivery was consistently over the top. That un-subtle style was probably appropriate for the majority of the roles in which he was cast, but it only worked for me once … and that was in the 1969 film True Grit. Wayne won his only Academy Award for his performance as the one-eyed U. S. Marshal Rooster Cogburn in that movie … and even though it was probably his best work ever, I’ve always suspected that the Oscar was to some extent a “sympathy” award. Wayne was a beloved figure to moviegoers, and True Grit surely represented the Academy’s last best opportunity to honor the aging icon.

The original True Grit is loosely based on a novel by Charles Portis. The story line is straightforward, perfectly suited for a movie adaptation. It goes something like this:

a) Bad guy kills good guy

b) Good guy’s daughter hires U. S. Marshal to lead her in pursuit of bad guy

c) U. S. Marshal and good guy’s daughter form an uneasy alliance with Texas Ranger

d) The trio locates bad guy and the situation is resolved through excessive and gratuitous violence

The 1969 iteration of True Grit was a success not so much because of the story, but because of the strength of the characters the author generated to bring it to life. Some credit, of course, must also be assigned to the actors who played the critical roles.

John Wayne was John Wayne through most of the picture, but there were flashes of brilliance and humanity in his performance that would be impossible to find elsewhere in his work. A young, fresh-faced Kim Darby was superb as Mattie Ross. She was the embodiment of the relentless but principled businesswoman, with just enough feminine vulnerability to give the males in the picture legitimate grounds for defending her. Glen Campbell played Labeouf, the Texas Ranger who joined them to pursue the outlaw. Campbell was the heartthrob du jour back in ’69, so I think it’s safe to assume he was cast solely for box office purposes. He was horrifying, to be sure, but at times he delivered just enough country boy charm to be almost passable in the role.

There were several scenes in the movie that bordered on the magnificent. One of the most effective was young Mattie’s horse trading with the auctioneer, Colonel Stonehill, who was in possession of horses purchased by her father prior to his murder. Only fourteen years old, she brutally intimidated and threatened Stonehill until he gave her every penny she wanted, and then returned later in the day to browbeat him into another absurdly one-sided trade. As she left the Colonel’s company, she casually asked him if he was acquainted with Marshal Cogburn. He answered affirmatively, noting that Cogburn was a “notorious thumper” and a man who richly deserved his terrible reputation. He then remarked pointedly to Mattie, “I would not be surprised to learn that he is a relative of yours.”

In what may have been Wayne’s finest scene, he and Mattie sat on a darkened hilltop waiting in ambush for a band of outlaws. They took the time to work past business disagreements and the hardships of the trail to get to know each other. Cogburn related the memory of his brief sentence as a husband and father and his days as the proprietor of “an eatin’ place” in Cairo, Illinois. He seemed to have no regrets that his wife and son had eventually abandoned him but he was genuinely wistful at the memory of the billiard table in his old restaurant. The scene is played with uncharacteristic delicacy.  I once read that Wayne believed it to be the best work he’d ever done … I think his instincts may have been accurate in this assessment.

The cinematically gorgeous True Grit of 1969 was filmed in the autumn in what appears to be Colorado. The scenery was spectacular and the colors were glorious, and after many tribulations and several dozen rounds fired, it ends on a poignant and touching note … a decidedly positive ending. The Coen brothers’ 2010 remake is a horse of a different color. The underlying story is essentially the same and some of the dialogue is identical … but the movies are more dissimilar than they are alike.

Jeff Bridges and Hailee Steinfeld as Cogburn and Mattie Ross

Jeff Bridges and Hailee Steinfeld as Cogburn and Mattie Ross

The story line in the Coen brothers’ 2010 remake is truer to Charles Portis’ novel than the original version … and the tone and mood of it is much more somber. Fort Smith, Arkansas, the point of departure for the pursuers, is not the colorful and lively burg it was in the first picture. It is a drab and desolate place that relies on the occasional hanging as a source of entertainment for citizens of all ages. The trail scenes are set in a stark, bare-treed, late winter landscape that seems appropriate to the darker mood rendered by the Coens. There are no golden aspen leaves fluttering in the late afternoon sunshine. In fact, a gentle snow falls during many of the Coen brothers’ most critical transitional scenes.

The music in the 1969 picture was almost overwhelming … not always in a good way. Chase scenes were overdubbed with a frantic, high volume orchestra score that tended to bludgeon the viewer … it annoys today even more than it did in 1969, when this technique was the norm rather than the exception. The music in the remake was elegant and understated. It took a few seconds to recognize the phrases … but as the measures progressed my memory returned me to my very early days as a southern Baptist and the song finally registered – it was the lovely old hymn “Leaning on the Everlasting Arms.”

The new version of True Grit offers the viewer a much more accurate depiction of dress and appearance in 1878 Arkansas. The characters in the television and movie westerns of the 1960s sported a few too many leather vests, string ties, narrow-brimmed cowboy hats, and clean shaven faces … it was a sartorial approach that never matched any photographs I’ve seen from that era in our history. The courtroom scene in the Coen Brothers film features characters that could have been extracted from a Matthew Brady compendium. They are impeccably dressed in period clothing and exquisitely bewhiskered with muttonchops and long mustaches.

The performances in the Coen Brothers’ version certainly equal or surpass those in the original. John Wayne, despite his shortcomings as an actor, was a powerful screen presence. Physically imposing, with a rugged voice to match his impressive appearance, he seemed to dominate virtually every scene. The new Rooster Cogburn, Jeff Bridges, has none of those qualities. But his consummate skill as an actor more than compensates. His performance is nuanced … he is a much more plausible drunk and he manifests the appropriate level of “true grit” when the situation demands it. Matt Damon, who is not an actor of the first rank in my opinion, is entirely credible as the Texas Ranger. His character is far more complex than the one portrayed in the original … he is dedicated to the Rangers and his pursuit of the outlaw, but he is loquacious in the extreme and often plagued by deep self-doubt. His character has noticeably more depth and mystery than Glen Campbell’s. The new Mattie Ross is brilliantly played by Hailee Steinfeld. Although young for the part, she is hard-edged and every bit as plausible as Kim Darby was in the original role. True to the novel, she is pragmatic in life and implacable in business. In one of her first speaking scenes, she stares down at her father’s remains in a casket with the undertaker looking on … she does not cry or wring her hands, but asks simply and directly “why is it so much?” After silently listening to the undertaker’s summary of the expenses, she is offered the opportunity to kiss her dead father’s cheek. She peremptorily declines, stating that “the spirit has flown.” Her performance as Mattie is certainly one of the highlights of this film.

I’ve always been attracted to simple stories about the pursuit of justice and right regardless of inconvenience, physical hardship or personal expense. Many of my favorite pictures – “The Winslow Boy” and “A Man For All Seasons” to name just two – revolve around this theme. True Grit is certainly the best western film representation of this idea. The original will always hold a special place in my heart … but it’s now superseded by the extraordinary Coen Brothers rendition. I’ve seen it in the theater twice now and may try it one last time on the big screen that will best do it justice.

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